Lithium niobate

 Lithium niobate is a ferroelectric material suitable for a variety of applications. Its versatilityis made possible by the excellent electro-optic, nonlinear, and piezoelectric properties of theintrinsic material. It is one of the most thoroughly characterized electro-optic materials, andcrystal growing techniques consistently produce large crystals of high perfection.Applications that utilize the large electro-optic coefficients of lithium niobate are opticalmodulation and Q-switching of infrared wavelengths. Because the crystal isnonhygroscopic and has a low half-wave voltage 

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